A centrifugal pump converts rotating energy from a prime mover into movement of a liquid. A centrifugal pump mostly consists of the following basic elements:
- The impellor. The impeller rotates inside the volute casing.
- The volute casing, or the pump housing. This is the shell of the pump. The volute consists of an hole were the liquid enters, the flow leaves the volute and a location were the drive shaft can enter the pump.
- The drive shaft. The drive shaft connects the impellor to the prime mover.
- Shaft seals. The shaft seal avoids that while the shaft is sticking outside the pump, the liquid is stays inside the pump. There are many types of seals. Most common types are; gland seal and mechanical seals.
The functionality of a centrifugal pump:
When the prime mover start rotating the direct coupled shaft brings the impellor also into a rotation. Due to this the liquid also start rotating and the centrifugal force moves the liquid to the outside of the volute casing. There the speed is transferred in to pressure and the liquid leaves the pump. Due to the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the pump a fluid flow is created.